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Most healthy poisons in the world

The main goal of any lifeform is to survive and take over the world. In childhood most of us thought about why oranges and apples are so tasty? Why do plants create such delicious fruits? Do they want us to eat them? In reality though, plants are simply making nutritious fruits, and our evolution made us believe that nutritious food is delicious. No plant is interested in having its fruits eaten, except of course this is the way to spread its seed further away from itself. On the contrary, plants have developed different toxins and poisons to prevent animals from eating them. Many animals have learned to deal with and digest those toxins. For example, koalas are practically only animals capable of digesting incredibly toxic eucalyptus leaves. Such an unusual diet left them with no herbivorous rivals and made their meat practically unsuitable for food, which is why most predators avoid them.
Unlike koalas, humans have not developed such abilities, however, thanks to our ingenuity and ability to use various natural gifts for our own good, we have learned to use many poisons from plants and animals as medicines. In fact, almost any medicine can be called poison, and vice versa, it's all about the dosage. So poisons of plant origin that are used in medicine:

Ergot fungi

The ergot fungus usually parasitizes rye and wheat as well as other grains. It contains many different alkaloids that are toxic to humans. The main effect on the human body is muscle contraction (especially smooth muscles), various neurological symptoms and hallucinations. In high doses, due to prolonged contraction of smooth muscles, overall blood supply is disrupted and gangrene of the extremities develops. In small quantities, it is successfully used in gynecology to contract the uterus, as an aid during childbirth or to stop uterine bleeding. The ergot fungus was also used by Albert Hofmann to synthesize LSD.

Atropa belladonna

The nightshade family includes such plants as belladonna, mandrake, datura, etc. All of them are poisonous. Atropine, widely known in pharmacology and medicine, is obtained from these plants. When ingested, atropine reduces the secretion of the salivary and gastric glands and lowers the tone of smooth muscle organs, which allows it to be successfully used in diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. The ability to reduce the secretion of sweat glands has been successfully used to combat excessive sweating, and its ability to increase the heart rate is also used to treat certain medical conditions.

Digitalis or foxgloves

Digitalis is the name of a plant genus that can contain cardiac and steroid glycosides, which are very toxic to humans and animals and can cause heart attacks and in some cases even heart failure. Because of the way the toxins from these plants affect the heart, they are used in the manufacture of a drug called digitalin, which is used to control heart rate.
While plants do their best to scare away those who want to eat them by producing all sorts of complex poisons and toxins, ironically, some of them are now used by humans only because of those very poisons.


When immune system goes rogue

Immune system is a system of the body that protects it from all foreign substances from the outside (viruses, bacteria, fungi, etc.) and controls the destruction of failed or outdated cells (for example, it is immunity that protects us from tumour formations). In order for immune cells not to destroy the cells of their own body, there is immunological tolerance.

Banana republic the beginning

One of the co-founders of the United Fruit Company (now Chiquita) was Minor Cooper Keith. He built a railroad in Costa Rica and planted many banana trees along the way to feed the workers. When the government could no longer fund the project, Keith had to come up with something to pay back the huge loan he had received. He decided to start using the newly built railroad to export bananas to the United States.

Appendix - a secondary immune organ

Although appendix is no longer used by humans for digestive purposes it still contains a high concentration of lymphoid tissue. Lymphoid tissue is essential for the immune system and may help encourage the growth of some types of beneficial gut flora.

How to survive if you're slow as a sloth?

A sloth can move slowly, but movement is not his primary defense method. Camouflage is a great way to go undetected. And this is where sloths have become experts over a long period of their evolution.

Bone conduction: why your own voice sounds different to you

Low frequency sounds are better transmitted through bone than high frequency sounds. This is why people tend to feel the low bass notes in music more than the higher pitched notes. This is also why your own voice sounds different to you than it does to other people.